The Public Affairs Centre (PAC) has released this year’s Public Affairs Index 2018, ranking the states of India in terms of best governance, and with no surprise, the best governed state this year is Kerala.

A Bengaluru think-tank called Public Affairs Centre (PAC) releases the annual Public Affairs Index that lists out Indian states to rank the best governed ones in chronological order. On Sunday, the Public Affairs Index 2018 was released and Kerala topped the list of best governed states of India – followed by Tamil Nadu (second), Telangana (third), Karnataka (fourth) and Gujarat (fifth). Kerala’s feat in the Public Affairs Index 2018 is no surprise as this is the third consecutive time that the state has been ranked as the best-governed larger state. While Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar made it to the bottom of the list due to their social and economic inequalities.

Among the smaller states with population less than two crores, Himachal Pradesh aced the list, followed by Goa, Mizoram, Sikkim and Tripura as the best-governed small states of India. Whereas, Nagaland, Manipur and Meghalaya ranked at the bottom of the best-governed small state list this year. The list is developed based on factors that includes essential infrastructure, support to human development, social protection, women and children as well as law and order; and also the social and economic factors in these states.

PAC, which was founded in 1994 by economist Samuel Paul, conducts the annual surveys to mobilise the need of better governance in India. With time, the PAC has modernised and today, it generates the Public Affairs Index based on a total of 30 focus subjects and 100 indicators are measured to list out the governments. To keep the result unbiased and accurate, the index is derived using a data-based framework, ranking them on social and economic development they are able to provide.